Green hydrogen

decarbonization

Green hydrogen ya zama ɗayan ginshiƙai na Asusun Bayar da EUungiyar EU. Wasu kudaden za su kasance mafi girman kunshin tallafi da aka taɓa bayarwa ta hanyar kasafin kuɗin EU, tare da jimillar allurar tattalin arziki na euro tiriliyan 1.8 da aka yi amfani da su don sake gina Turai bayan COVID-19. Canjin makamashi yana daya daga cikin magunan wannan farfadowa, wanda aka kasafta kashi 30% na kasafin kudin don canjin yanayi. Anan ne hydrogen kore ya fara samun matsayi, yana jan hankalin mutane da sanya shi cikin bahasin jama'a a matsayin ɗayan ginshiƙai na lalata tattalin arziƙi. Amma menene ainihin koren hydrogen?

A cikin wannan labarin zamu fada muku menene koren hydrogen, menene halaye da mahimmancin sa.

Menene koren hydrogen

koren hydrogen karatu

Hydrogen shine mafi yawan sinadarai a duniya, amma yana da matsala: ba'a sameshi kyauta a muhallin (misali, a tafkuna), amma koyaushe yana haɗuwa da wasu abubuwan (misali, a ruwa, H2O ko methane, CH4). Saboda hakaDon amfani da shi a aikace-aikacen makamashi, dole ne a fara fitar da shi, wato, rabu da sauran abubuwan.

Don aiwatar da wannan rabuwa da samun hydrogen kyauta, ya zama dole ayi aiwatar da wasu matakai kuma ana kashe kuzari akansu. Wannan yana bayyana hydrogen a matsayin mai ɗaukar makamashi, maimakon makamashi na farko ko mai wanda mutane da yawa suke la'akari dashi. Green hydrogen shine mai ɗaukar makamashi, ba shine asalin tushen makamashi ba. A wasu kalmomin, hydrogen abu ne wanda zai iya adana kuzari, wanda daga nan za'a sake shi ta yadda ake sarrafa shi a wani wuri. Saboda haka, na iya zama kwatankwacin batirin lithium wanda ke ajiye wutar lantarki, maimakon makamashi kamar gas.

Hanyoyin Hydrogen don magance canjin yanayi ya ta'allaka ne da ikon maye gurbin burbushin halittu a cikin aikace-aikacen da rage lalata abubuwa ya fi rikitarwa, kamar su jirgin ruwa da jigilar sama ko wasu matakan masana'antu. Menene ƙari, yana da babbar dama azaman tsarin ajiyar makamashi na yanayi (dogon lokaci), wanda zai iya tara kuzari na dogon lokaci, sannan yayi amfani da shi akan buƙata.

Asali da nau'ikan hydrogen

koren hydrogen

A matsayin gas mara launi, gaskiyar ita ce lokacin da muke magana game da hydrogen, yawanci muna amfani da kalmomi masu launuka don bayyana shi. Da yawa daga cikinku za su ji labarin koren hydrogen, launin toka, shuɗi, da sauransu. Launin da aka sanya wa hydrogen ba komai bane face lakabi da ake amfani dashi don rarrabashi bisa asalinsa da kuma adadin carbon dioxide da ake fitarwa yayin samar dashi. A wasu kalmomin, hanya mai sauƙi don fahimtar yadda "tsabta" yake:

  • Brown hydrogen: An samo shi ta hanyar iskar gas, kuma yayin aikin samarwa ana fitar da carbon dioxide. Wani lokacin ana kiranta bakaken hydrogen.
  • Gizon hydrogen: samu daga garambawul gas. A halin yanzu shine mafi yawan kayan aiki kuma mafi arha, kodayake ana tsammanin farashin zai iya ƙaruwa saboda farashin haƙƙin haɓakar carbon dioxide. Samar da tan 1 na H2 toka zai fitar da tan 9 zuwa 12 na CO2.
  • Blue hydrogen: Hakanan ana samar dashi ta hanyar sake fasalin gas, bambancin shine sashi ko duk fitarwa na CO2 ana kiyaye shi ta hanyar tsarin kama carbon. Daga baya, ana iya amfani da wannan carbon dioxide don yin makamashin roba, misali.
  • Green hydrogen: Ana samun sa ta hanyar amfani da wutan lantarki ta hanyar amfani da wutar lantarki daga hanyoyin samun kuzari. Ita ce mafi tsada, amma yayin da farashin makamashi mai sabuntawa da na lantarki suka ragu, ana sa ran farashinsa zai ragu a hankali. Wani nau'in koren hydrogen ana samar dashi daga gas ta amfani da dabbobi, noma da / ko sharar birni.

A zahiri, tsarin samar da hydrogen mai kore bashi da rikitarwa kwata-kwata: electrolysis kawai tana amfani da wutan lantarki ne dan fasa ruwa (H2O) zuwa iskar oxygen (O2) da hydrogen (H2). Babban kalubalen shine kasancewa mai gasa, wanda ke buƙatar mai yawa mai sabunta wutar lantarki (wanda ya fi ko fixedasa tsayayye), da ingantaccen da sikelin fasahar lantarki.

Yana amfani da koren hydrogen

makamashi mai sabuntawa

A ka'ida, daya daga cikin hanyoyin mafi inganci wajen rage tattalin arzikin kasa shine kokarin zabar dukkan tsarin makamashi. Koyaya, a yanzu, baturi da fasahar lantarki basa yuwuwa, ya dogara da aikin. A yawancin su, koren hydrogen na iya maye gurbin mai, kodayake ba duka ne suka balaga ko sauki ba:

Madadin haka, yi amfani da hydrogen mai ruwan kasa da ruwan toka. Mataki na farko ya zama ya maye gurbin duk burbushin hydrogen da ake amfani da shi a halin yanzu a masana'antu, amfani da fasahohin da aka haɓaka da rage farashin. Alubalen ba ƙarami ba ne: buƙatar duniya don samar da hydrogen daga samar da wutar lantarki za ta cinye 3.600 TWh, fiye da jimillar wutar lantarki ta EU kowace shekara. Waɗannan sune manyan abubuwan amfani da koren hydrogen:

  • Masana'antu mai nauyi. Manyan masu amfani da karafa, siminti, kamfanonin sinadarai da sauran kayan mai ba sa samun saukin kai ko yuwuwar kai tsaye.
  • Adana makamashi. Babu shakka wannan ɗayan aikace-aikace ne masu matukar alfanu game da hydrogen: azaman tsarin adana makamashi na yanayi. Tare da karuwar shaharar da makamashi mai sabuntawa, za mu ga cewa kudin wutar lantarki da gaske ne mai sauki, kuma ma za a samu ragi saboda babu inda za a cinye ta. Anan ne hydrogen zai shigo cikin wasa, wanda za'a iya samar dashi mai rahusa sannan kuma ayi amfani dashi akan bukatar kowane aikace-aikace, shin samarda wuta ne ko kuma duk wani aiki.
  • Sufuri. Babu shakka sufuri wani ɗayan aikace-aikace ne mai gamsarwa game da hydrogen. A cikin safarar haske ta yau, batura suna lashe gasar, amma wasu masana'antun (musamman Japan) suna ci gaba da haɓaka samfuran ƙwayoyin mai kuma sakamakon yana ƙara zama mai ba da tabbaci.
  • Dumama. Dumama cikin gida da masana’antu yanki ne wanda koyaushe ba za a iya sanya wutar lantarki ba (famfunan zafi ba koyaushe zaɓi bane), kuma hydrogen na iya zama mafita na bangaranci. Bugu da ƙari, ana iya amfani da kayayyakin more rayuwa (kamar su hanyoyin sadarwar iskar gas) don haɓaka buƙatu. A zahiri, haɗuwa har zuwa 20% ta ƙimar hydrogen a cikin sadarwar iskar gas ɗin da ke akwai tana buƙatar ƙananan gyare-gyare ga cibiyar sadarwar mai amfani ko kayan aikin.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da koren hydrogen da aikace-aikacen sa.


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