korau externalities

muhalli da dorewa

Mummunan waje yana nufin kowane nau'i na cutarwa ga al'umma, wanda aka haifar ta hanyar samarwa ko ayyukan amfani, waɗanda ba su cikin farashin su. Domin muhalli, 'yan adam da bambancin halittu korau externalities Suna da matukar mahimmanci don tantancewa.

A saboda wannan dalili, za mu sadaukar da wannan labarin don gaya muku abin da ke waje mara kyau, halayen su da kuma babban sakamako ga muhalli.

Menene abubuwan waje mara kyau

korau externalities

Za mu iya ayyana abubuwan waje a matsayin waɗanda tasirin na biyu ya haifar da ayyukan mutum ko kamfani waɗanda ba su da alhakin duk sakamakon zamantakewa ko muhalli na wannan aikin.

Gabaɗaya, akwai nau'ikan abubuwan waje guda biyu, tabbatacce da korau, waɗanda za mu faɗaɗa a ƙasa. Don fahimtar shi da kyau: Bayyanar misali na tabbataccen waje ita ce gurbatar yanayi da masana'antu ke samarwa a cikin muhalli lokacin da take kera motoci. Wannan kamfani yana da alhakin sayan kayan, canzawa cikin motoci da tallace-tallace, amma idan aka ba da mummunan waje na waɗannan ayyukan, mai yiwuwa ya yi amfani da na'ura mai gurbatawa sosai a cikin tsarin samarwa, tare da mummunan sakamako ga muhalli.

tabbataccen waje

Kyakkyawar waje duk wani sakamako mai kyau na ayyukan membobin al'umma ne, ba a fayyace cikin farashi ko fa'idar waɗannan ayyukan ba. Ma'anar tabbataccen waje ba'a iyakance ga kowane fanni ko kimiyya ba, ya haɗa da duk wani tasiri mai kyau, babba da ƙanana, waɗanda ayyukan kowane mutum ko kamfani za su iya yi a cikin al'ummarmu.

Muna magana ne game da sakamako masu kyau waɗanda ba a haɗa su cikin farashin samarwa ko farashin sayayya ba, amma waɗanda zasu iya samun sakamako mai fa'ida sosai ga al'umma gaba ɗaya. Saka hannun jarin asibitoci da dakunan gwaje-gwaje don nemo maganin wasu cututtuka shi ne misalin haka. Da farko, wanda zai iya tunanin cewa wannan alƙawarin zuwa R&D na iya kashe kuɗi mai yawa idan masu bincike ba su sami magani da sauri ba.

Hakikanin gaskiya ya nuna mana akasin haka, cewa irin wannan aiki yana da matukar muhimmanci ga jin dadi da lafiyar mutane, tunda ba dade ko ba dade za a gano wani magani da ke rage illar cutar da ke tattare da ita. Wannan maganin, wanda zai dauki lokaci kafin a samu, wanda aka kara a cikin babban jarin tattalin arziki, zai samu kyakkyawar fuskar al'umma ta hanyar ceton dubban rayuka, amma hakan bai bayyana ba a cikin binciken da aka dade ana fuskanta.

Hakanan, akwai ƙarin ayyuka da yawa waɗanda za su iya haifar da kyakkyawan waje ga al'umma, waɗanda kuma suna da mahimmanci don ingantaccen aiki:

  • Zuba jari wajen kula da kayayyakin jama'a (hanyoyi, gine-gine, wuraren shakatawa, filayen wasanni, asibitoci).
  • ilimi ( kula da makarantu, kwararrun malamai, isassun manhajoji).
  • Binciken Likita (alurar rigakafi, magunguna, sabbin magunguna).

korau externalities

Ba kamar waje mai kyau ba, mummunan waje shine sakamakon aiwatar da duk wani aiki da ke haifar da cutarwa ga al'umma, ba yana nufin farashinsa ba. Kodayake muna ma'amala da ra'ayoyi daga fagen tattalin arziki, waɗannan ra'ayoyin ana iya fitar da shi zuwa kowane fanni na rayuwar yau da kullun.

Kyakkyawan misali na waje mara kyau shine gurbatar yanayi, musamman masana'antu, ta manyan kamfanoni. Ka yi tunanin yanayin wani babban kamfanin hakar ma'adinai da ya ƙware wajen hako da sarrafa kwal. A lokacin da ake auna farashin gudanar da wani aiki, ba sa la'akari da yawan gurɓacewar da zai haifar ga muhalli. Ana la'akari da wannan mummunan waje kuma Sakamakon tsarin samar da kamfanin ne. kuma ba a nunawa a cikin farashin tallace-tallace ko farashin samar da kwal.

Idan muka tsaya muka yi tunani, kusan dukkan ayyuka suna da mummunan waje ga al'umma. Misali, shan taba yana da illa ga lafiyar mai amfani, amma yana haifar da mummunan waje kamar raguwar abubuwan more rayuwa (idan mutum yana shan taba a daki, hayakin zai iya canza launin bangon kuma ya lalata shi), kuma yana iya yin mummunan tasiri ga lafiyar wani (masu ciwon asma suna shakar hayakin sigari).

Yadda za a sarrafa mummunan waje da haɓaka masu kyau?

korau muhalli externalities

Gwamnati na da matakan sarrafawa da rage haifar da mummunan waje, kamar:

  • Haraji ga kamfanoni mafi gurbata yanayi don haɓaka amfani da makamashi mai sabuntawa da hanyoyin samar da dorewa.
  • Tsara wasu ayyuka (misali, shan taba, zirga-zirga a manyan birane).
  • Shirye-shiryen ilimi da wayar da kan jama'a.

A gefe guda, akwai kuma hanyoyin da ke haɓakawa da haɓaka kyawawan abubuwan waje waɗanda kamfanoni da mutane ke samarwa:

  • Tallafi ga cibiyoyin ilimi (ma'aikatan jinya, makarantu da sauransu).
  • Samar da kudade don bincike da haɓakawa, musamman a fannin kimiyya da likitanci.

Externalities, ko tabbatacce ko korau, sun wanzu ba kawai a fagen tattalin arzikin al'umma ba. Duk wani nau'i na hali, kamar shan taba ko jefa robobi a kan titi, na iya yin tasiri na gajeren lokaci / dogon lokaci a kan al'umma, wanda zai iya zama mara kyau ko mai kyau, dangane da halin.

Misalai na waje mara kyau

tabbataccen waje

Mu yi tunani game da shi, duk ayyukanmu, ko da yake ba su da wani muhimmanci a gare mu, suna da tasiri ga sauran mutanen da suke cikin al'ummarmu.

Abubuwan waje mara kyau suna tasowa lokacin da ayyukan da suke muna ɗauka a matsayin kamfanoni, daidaikun mutane ko gidaje a cikin wani aiki suna da illa na biyu ga ɓangarori na uku. Ba a haɗa waɗannan tasirin a cikin jimillar farashi ba. Abubuwan da ba su da kyau saboda girmamawa ba su kasance a cikin samarwa ba kuma a cikin farashin sabis na jama'a a lokacin amfani.

Abubuwan waje mara kyau, kamar tabbataccen waje, Waɗannan ra'ayi ne na tattalin arziki. Amma ya kamata a lura cewa waɗannan za a iya amfani da su daidai a waje da duniyar tattalin arziki. Don haka, ba kawai ayyukan tattalin arziki ke haifar da waje ba, har ma da ayyukan da aka gano a matsayin waɗanda ba na tattalin arziki ba.

Ana tsinkayar abubuwan waje da tasirin kai tsaye waɗanda basa cikin farashin da aka biya don samarwa, amfani ko amfani.

Misalan abubuwan waje mara kyau da aka bayar a ƙasa zasu iya taimaka mana don zurfafa fahimtar irin waɗannan abubuwan waje. Mun san cewa tushen mummunan waje na iya zama marar iyaka. Duk da haka, a matsayin misali, za mu iya yin nuni ga masu zuwa.

  • shan taba
  • gurɓin muhalli
  • shan giya
  • sharar rediyo da sauransu
  • hayaniyar inji yayi yawa

Ana iya fahimtar cewa mummunan waje shine babban jerin ayyuka da tasiri tare da farashi.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da mummunan waje da halayen su.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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