Veara ƙarfi ko ƙarfin kuzari

Veara ƙarfi

Ruwan teku yana dauke da adadin makamashi mai yawa samu daga iska, ta yadda za a ga saman teku a matsayin babban mai tara makamashin iska.

A gefe guda, tekuna na shan dimbin yawan hasken rana, wanda kuma yana ba da gudummawa ga motsin ruwan teku da raƙuman ruwa.

Waves sune raƙuman ƙarfi kerawa, kamar yadda na riga na faɗi, ta hanyar iska da zafin rana, wanda ake watsawa ta saman saman tekuna kuma wanda ya ƙunshi motsi tsaye da kuma kwance na ƙwayoyin ruwan.

Ruwan da ke kusa da farfajiya ba wai kawai yana motsawa daga sama zuwa kasa ba, tare da hanyar wucewa (shi ne mafi girman sashi, yawanci ana cika shi da kumfa) da sinus (mafi ƙanƙan ɓangare na kalaman), amma, a hankali mai kumbura, Hakanan yana tafiya gaba akan dutsen kalaman da baya a kirjin.

Saboda haka kwayoyi daban-daban suna da motsi madaidaiciya, suna tashi yayin da murfin ya kusanto, sa'annan yaci gaba tare da dutsen, ƙasa idan ya sauka a baya, da baya a cikin raƙuman ruwa.

Waɗannan raƙuman ruwa na makamashi a saman teku, taguwar ruwa, suna iya yin tafiyar mil mil kilomita kuma a wasu wurare, kamar Arewacin Atlantika, adadin kuzarin da aka ajiye zai iya kaiwa 10 KW ga kowane murabba'in mita na teku, wanda yake wakiltar adadi mai yawa idan kayi la'akari da girman saman teku.

Yankunan tekun da ke da yawan kuzari tara a cikin taguwar ruwa su ne waɗancan yankuna fiye da 30º latitude da kudu, lokacin da iska tayi karfi.

A cikin hoton da ke tafe za ku iya ganin yadda tsayin igiyar ruwa ya bambanta gwargwadon tekun da ke ƙasa gwargwadon yadda take zuwa ƙasa.

amplitude yana canza raƙuman ruwa

Harnessing kalaman makamashi

Wannan nau'in fasaha an fara aiki dashi kuma an fara aiwatar dashi a cikin 1980s, kuma yana samun babban karɓa, saboda shi halaye masu sabuntawa, da kuma babban tasirinsa aiwatarwa anan gaba.

Aiwatar da shi kuma ya zama mai fa'ida sosai tsakanin latitude 40 ° da 60 ° saboda halayen raƙuman ruwa.

Saboda wannan dalili, an daɗe ana ƙoƙari canza jujjuyawar tsaye da kwance ta raƙuman ruwa zuwa makamashin da mutane za su iya amfani da shi, gabaɗaya makamashin iska, kodayake an kuma aiwatar da ayyukan don juya shi zuwa motsi na inji.

Wave makamashi aikin

Aikin hidimar majagaba a cikin Canary Islands

Akwai nau'ikan na'urori masu yawa waɗanda aka tsara don waɗannan dalilai, waɗanda za a iya kasancewa a ciki bakin teku, a kan manyan tekuna ko nutsar da su a cikin teku.

A halin yanzu, an aiwatar da wannan makamashi a yawancin kasashen da suka ci gaba, don haka cimma babbar fa'ida ga tattalin arzikin kasashen da aka fada, wannan ya faru ne saboda babban adadin makamashi da ake bayarwa dangane da yawan ƙarfin da ake buƙata a kowace shekara.

Alal misali:

  • A Amurka an kiyasta hakan a kusa 55 TWh a kowace shekara ana maye gurbinsu da kuzari daga motsin raƙuman ruwa. Wannan ƙimar ita ce kashi 14% na jimillar ƙimar makamashi da ƙasar ke buƙata kowace shekara.
  • Kuma a cikin Turai an sani cewa a kusa 280 TWh Sun samo asali ne daga kuzarin da motsin raƙuman ruwa ya haifar a cikin shekara.

Masu tara wutar makamashin teku

A yankunan da kasuwanci isk windski (Waɗannan iskoki suna hurawa kusan kullun a lokacin bazara, arewacin duniya, da ƙasa da lokacin hunturu. Suna kewaya tsakanin wurare masu zafi, daga 30-35º latitude zuwa mahaɗar mahaukata. Ana jagorantar su daga matsin lamba mai ƙarfi na ƙasa, zuwa ƙananan matsin lamba.) Samar da ci gaba motsi zuwa raƙuman ruwa, zaka iya gina tafki tare da bango mai gangara na kankare na fuskantar teku, inda raƙuman ruwa zasu iya zamewa su tara a cikin tafkin da ke tsakanin mita 1,5 zuwa 2 sama da matakin teku.

Wannan ruwa na iya juyawa, yana ba shi damar komawa cikin teku, don samar da wutar lantarki.

Tashin ruwa da faduwar tekun, a wasu wuraren da wannan fasahar za ta yi amfani da su, kadan ne, don haka ba za ta samar da wani tsangwama ba.

A yankunan bakin teku inda raƙuman ruwa ke da tarin iko mai yawa, ana iya jagorantar raƙuman ruwan ta hanyar tubalin da aka sa a cikin teku, wanda zai iya tattara kusan dukkan kuzarin gaban gaba mai nisan kilomita 10 a cikin ƙaramin yanki mai faɗin mita 400.

Ruwan igiyar ruwa a wannan yanayin zai sami tsayin mita 15 zuwa 30 lokacin da yake matsawa zuwa gabar teku, don haka ruwan yana iya tarawa cikin sauƙi a cikin wani matattarar ruwa da ke wani tsayi.

Ta hanyar sakin wannan ruwan a cikin teku, ana iya samar da lantarki ta amfani da kayan aikin lantarki na yau da kullun.

Amfani da motsi

Akwai na'urori daban-daban na wannan nau'in.

A cikin hoto mai zuwa zaku iya ganin ɗayan da aka yi amfani dashi kuma hakan ya ba da sakamako mai gamsarwa.

matsin lamba da damuwaTsarin tsari ne na amfani da ƙarfin igiyar ruwa wanda aikinsa ke da sauƙi kuma ya ƙunshi waɗannan masu zuwa:

  • Kalaman tashi yana gina matsin iska a cikin rufaffiyar tsari. Daidai yake daidai kamar idan mun danna sirinji.
  • Bawuloli suna “tilasta” iska ta wuce cikin injin turbin don ya juya kuma ya motsa janareta, ya samar da makamashin lantarki.
  • Lokacin da kalaman suka sauka sai ta samar damuwa a cikin iska.
  • Bawul din sun sake "tilasta" iska ya wuce ta cikin injin turbin a dai-dai hanyar da ta gabata, wanda da shi ne turbine din yake dawo da juyawarsa, yana motsa janareto kuma yana ci gaba da samar da lantarki.

Anyi amfani da wannan ƙa'idar a cikin Jirgin Kaimei wanda aka samar da shi ta hanyar amfani da injin turbin iska, wani aikin hadin gwiwa na gwamnatin Japan da kuma Hukumar Makamashi ta Duniya.

Sakamakon wannan aikin ya kasance mai fa'ida sosai, kodayake amfani da shi bai yadu ba.

Ana amfani da wannan fasaha ta kwanan nan, amma ta amfani manyan tubalan kankare, a cikin wani aikin da aka gina a Scotland.

Akwai wasu na'urori waɗanda suma juyo sama da ƙasa motsi na kalaman don samar da wutar lantarki kamar:

Kwancen Cockerell

Wannan na'urar ta kunshi wani raftin da aka zana wanda yake lankwasawa tare da raƙuman raƙuman ruwa, don haka amfani da motsi don tuka famfo mai aiki da karfin ruwa.

raft makamashi taguwar ruwa

Duck na Salter

Wani sanannen sanannen shine Duck Salter, wanda ya kasance yana da jerin abubuwa masu ɗimbin yawa na oval waɗanda ke motsawa gaba da baya, lokacin da taguwar ruwa “ta buge”.

motsi motsi

Jakar iska ta Jami'ar Lancaster

Jakar airbag din ta kunshi bututun roba mai tsawon mita 180. Yayin da taguwar ruwa ta tashi sama ta fadi, ana jan iska a cikin jakar don fitar da injin turbin.

Jami'ar Bristol silinda

Wannan silinda yana da tsari kwatankwacin na ganga da aka sanya a gefenta wanda yake shawagi kai tsaye ƙasa da farfajiyar. Ganga tana juyawa tare da motsin raƙuman ruwa, yana jan sarƙoƙin da aka haɗa da fanfunan hydraulic da ke kan tekun.

Kai tsaye amfani da motsi motsi

An gwada wasu tsarin kai tsaye suke amfani da motsi na sama da kasa na taguwar ruwa.

Daya daga cikinsu, dangane da motsin kifayen kifayen da kifayen ruwa, zaka iya ganinsa a wannan zane.

kwaikwayo na dabbar dolphin

Ka'idar aiki mai sauqi ne kuma ya qunshi masu zuwa:

  • Lokacin da kalaman suka tashi kuma suka tura fin, wanda zai iya motsawa tsakanin 10 da 15º.
  • Na gaba, fin din ya kai karshen tafiyarsa kuma kalaman na ci gaba da tashi, a nan akwai turawa ta sama ta wurin kalaman da fin din ya canza zuwa turawa ta baya.
  • Daga baya, lokacin da kalaman suka faɗi ƙasa, sai ya tarar da ƙarar zuwa ƙasa kuma irin wannan abin yana faruwa kamar yadda ya faru a baya.

Idan jirgin ruwan yana da tsarin wannan nau'in, ana tasirantuwa da shi ta hanyar tasirin raƙuman ruwa ba tare da cin ɗan ƙaramin ƙarfi ba.

Gwaje-gwajen gwaji na wannan tsarin sun kasance masu gamsarwa, kodayake kamar yadda yake a cikin shari'ar da ta gabata, ba a kuma gama amfani da ita ba.

Fa'idodi da rashin amfani da kuzarin kuzari

Vearfin kuzari yana da babban ab advantagesbuwan amfãni kamar:

  • Itace asalin sabunta makamashi kuma mara karewa a ma'aunin mutum.
  • Tasirin muhalli kusan ba komai, idan muka banda tsarin don tara ƙarfin raƙuman ruwa a ƙasa.
  • Yawancin wuraren bakin teku na iya zama shigar cikin hadaddun tashar jiragen ruwa ko wani nau'in.

Fuskanci waɗannan fa'idodi yana da Wasu rashin amfani, wasu mafi mahimmanci sune:

  • Tsarin tarawa ƙarfin motsi a ƙasa na iya samun ƙarfi tasirin muhalli
  • Ya kusan mai amfani da shi a cikin ƙasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu, saboda ba kasafai ake samun tsarin guguwa mai kyau a cikin Duniya ta Uku ba; Vearfin raƙuman ruwa yana buƙatar babban saka hannun jari da ingantaccen tushen fasaha wanda ƙasashe matalauta ba su da shi.
  • Veara ƙarfi ko raƙuman ruwa ba za a iya annabta daidai ba, Tun da raƙuman ruwa sun dogara da yanayin yanayi.
  • Yawancin na'urorin ambata har yanzu suna da matsalolin aiki kuma suna fuskantar rikitarwa na fasaha.
  • Facilitiesungiyoyin bakin teku suna da babban tasirin gani.
  • A cikin wuraren da ke cikin teku yana da kyau hadadden aiki don watsa makamashin da aka samar zuwa babban yankin.
  • Dole ne wuraren su yi jure yanayi mai tsananin gaske na dogon lokaci.
  • Raƙuman ruwa suna da babban juzu'i da ƙananan hanzari, wanda dole ne a canza shi zuwa ƙaramar karfin juzu'i da sauri, wanda ake amfani da shi a kusan dukkanin inji. Wannan tsari yana da ragu sosai, ta amfani da fasahar zamani.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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