Duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da biogas

biogas

Akwai wadatattun hanyoyin samar da makamashi daban-daban baya ga abin da muka sani da iska, hasken rana, geothermal, hydraulic, da sauransu. A yau za mu bincika mu kuma koya game da tushen sabuntawar makamashi, watakila ba kamar yadda aka sani da sauran ba, amma na babban iko. Labari ne game da biogas.

Biogas gas ne mai ƙarfi wanda aka cire daga sharar ƙasa. Baya ga fa'idodi dayawa, nau'ine na tsafta da sabunta makamashi. Kuna so ku sani game da biogas?

Halayen biogas

Gas na gas shine ke samarda yanayin yanayi ko kuma takamaiman na'urori. Samfura ne na halayen lalacewar kwayoyin halitta. Yawancin lokaci ana samar da su a cikin kwandunan shara kamar yadda duk abubuwan da aka adana suka lalata. Lokacin da aka ce kwayoyin halitta sun bayyana ga wakilan waje, aikin kananan halittu kamar kwayoyin methanogenic (kwayoyin da suke bayyana lokacin da babu iskar oxygen da abinci akan iskar methane) da sauran abubuwan suna kaskantar da shi.

A cikin wadannan mahalli inda iskar oxygen bata wanzu kuma wadannan kwayoyin suna cin kwayoyin halitta, kayan asirinsu shine iskar methane da CO2. Saboda haka, abun da ke ciki na biogas cakuda ne wanda ya kunshi 40% da 70% methane da sauran CO2. Hakanan yana da sauran ƙananan gas kamar hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) da hydrogen sulfide (H2S), amma basu da asali.

Yadda ake samar da biogas

samar da gas

Ana samar da biogas ta hanyar bazuwar iska kuma yana da matukar amfani wajen magance barnar da za'a iya lalata ta, tunda tana samar da mai mai mahimmancin gaske kuma tana samar da danshi wanda za'a iya amfani dashi azaman kwandishan ƙasa ko takin gargajiya.

Da wannan gas din ana iya samar da wutar lantarki ta hanyoyi daban-daban. Na farko shi ne amfani da turbin don motsa gas da samar da lantarki. Wani kuma shine amfani da gas don samar da zafi a murhu, murhu, bushewa, tukunyar jirgi ko wasu tsarukan wuta waɗanda ke buƙatar gas.

Yayinda yake samar dashi sakamakon lalacewar kwayoyin halitta, ana daukar shi wani nau'in makamashi mai sabuntawa wanda ke iya maye gurbin burbushin mai. Da shi zaka iya samun makamashi don girki da dumama kamar yadda iskar gas ke aiki. Hakanan, biogas yana haɗuwa da janareta kuma yana ƙirƙirar wutar lantarki ta hanyar injunan ƙone ciki.

Energyarfin makamashi

Hawar biogas a cikin shara

Hawar biogas a cikin shara

Ta yadda za'a iya cewa biogas na da irin wannan damar don maye gurbin burbushin makamashi saboda lallai ne ya kasance yana da babban karfin makamashi. Tare da mita mai siffar sukari na biogas yana iya samarda haske na awanni 6. Hasken da aka samar na iya kaiwa daidai da kwan fitila mai watt 60. Hakanan zaka iya gudanar da firiji na mita mai siffar sukari na awa ɗaya, incubator na mintina 30, da motar HP na awanni 2.

Saboda haka, an yi la'akari da biogas gas mai ƙarfi tare da ƙarfin kuzari mai ban mamaki.

Tarihin biogas

samun biogas na gida

Maganar farko da za'a iya gani game da wannan gas din ya faro ne daga shekarar 1600, lokacin da masana kimiyya da yawa suka gano wannan gas ɗin a matsayin wanda yake zuwa daga bazuwar kwayoyin halitta.

A cikin shekaru, a cikin 1890, an gina shi biodigester na farko inda ake samar da biogas kuma ya kasance a Indiya. A cikin fitilun kan titi a cikin Exeter, Ingila, a shekara ta 1896 ana amfani da su ta hanyar amfani da iskar gas da aka tara daga masu narkar da shi wanda ke fitar da dattin daga magudanan ruwan garin.

Lokacin da yaƙin duniya biyu ya ƙare, abubuwan da ake kira masana'antar samar da biogas sun fara yaduwa a Turai. A cikin waɗannan masana'antar an ƙirƙira biogas don amfani da su a cikin motoci na lokacin. An san tankunan Imhoff kamar waɗanda ke iya magance ruwan magudanan ruwa da ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin halitta don samar da biogas. An yi amfani da iskar gas din da aka samar don aiki na shuke-shuke, don motocin birni kuma a wasu biranen an saka shi cikin cibiyar sadarwar gas.

Yaɗuwar biogas ya sami matsala ta hanyar sauƙin samun dama da aiwatar da mai kuma, bayan rikicin makamashi na shekarun 70, an sake fara binciken biogas da ci gaba a duk ƙasashen duniya, kasancewar sun fi mai da hankali kan ƙasashen Latin Amurka.

A cikin shekaru 20 da suka gabata, ci gaban biogas ya sami ci gaba da yawa masu mahimmanci saboda binciken da aka samu game da ƙwayoyin microbiological da biochemical tsari da ke aiki a ciki kuma godiya ga binciken halayyar ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ke shiga tsakani a cikin yanayin anaerobic.

Menene biodigesters?

biogas shuke-shuke

Biodigesters sune nau'ikan rufaffiyar, kayan kwalliyar kwalliya da na ruwa inda aka sanya kwayoyin halitta kuma aka basu damar narkewa da kuma samar da biogas. Mai biodigester dole ne a rufe shi kuma na kayan ado ta yadda kwayar cutar anaerobic zata iya aiki da kaskantar da kwayoyin halitta. Kwayar methanogenic tana girma ne kawai a yanayin da babu oxygen.

Wadannan tashoshin suna da girma na fiye da 1.000 mai siffar sukari na damar kuma suna aiki a yanayin yanayin zafin yanayi (tsakanin digiri 20 da 40) da thermophilic (sama da digiri 40).

Hakanan ana fitar da biogas daga kwandon shara inda, yayin da aka cika kuma aka rufe, yadudduka maras oxygen wanda aka samar dasu wanda kwayoyin cuta na methanogenic suna kaskantar da kwayoyin halitta kuma suna samar da biogas wanda ake fitarwa ta hanyar tubes.

Abubuwan fa'idar da biodigesters ke da shi akan sauran wuraren samar da wutar shine cewa suna da karancin tasirin muhalli kuma basa buƙatar ƙwararrun ma'aikata masu ƙwarewa. Bugu da kari, a matsayin wani abu na bazuwar kwayoyin halitta, ana iya samun takin gargajiya wanda aka sake amfani dashi don sanya takin gona a harkar noma.

Jamus, China da Indiya suna daga cikin kasashen da suka yi fice wajen bullo da wannan nau'in fasaha. A Latin Amurka, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay da Bolivia sun nuna babban ci gaba a cikin hada su.

Aikace-aikacen biogas a yau

amfani da biogas a yau

A Latin Amurka, ana amfani da biogas don magance ɓarna a cikin Ajantina. Stillage shine ragowar da ake samarwa a cikin masana'antar sukari kuma a ƙarƙashin yanayin anaerobic ana kaskantar dashi kuma yana haifar da gas.

Adadin biodigesters a duniya bai riga ya cika tantancewa ba. A Turai akwai biodigesters 130 kawai. Koyaya, wannan yana aiki kamar fagen sauran kuzari masu sabuntawa kamar su hasken rana da iska, ma'ana, kamar yadda aka gano fasaha da haɓaka, farashin ƙira yana raguwa kuma amincin ƙarancin biogas yana haɓaka. Saboda haka, an yi imanin cewa za su sami fage mai fa'ida na ci gaba a nan gaba.

Aikace-aikacen biogas a yankunan karkara ya kasance da matukar mahimmanci. Na farko ya yi amfani da shi don samar da makamashi da takin gargajiya ga manoma a cikin yankuna masu ƙananan yankunan da ke da karancin kuɗaɗen shiga da mawuyacin hanyoyin samun makamashi na yau da kullun.

Ga yankunan karkara, an haɓaka fasaha wanda ke neman cin nasarar narkar da abinci tare da mafi ƙarancin kuɗi kuma tare da sauƙin kulawa don aiki. Energyarfin da ake buƙatar samarwa bai kai na birni ba, saboda haka ba sharaɗi bane cewa ingancin sa yayi yawa.

Wani yanki wanda ake amfani da biogas a yau Yana cikin bangaren noma da masana'antu. Manufar amfani da gas a wadannan bangarorin shine samar da makamashi da magance manyan matsaloli da gurbacewar yanayi ke haifarwa. Tare da biodigesters gurɓatar kwayoyin halitta zai iya zama mafi kyawun sarrafawa. Wadannan biodigesters suna da inganci sosai da kuma aikace-aikacen su, ban da samun farashi masu yawa na farko, suna da hadaddun tsarin kulawa da tsarin aiki.

Cigaba na baya-bayan nan a cikin kayan haɓakawa sun ba da izinin yin amfani da iskar gas ɗin da ke haɓaka da kuma ci gaba da ci gaba a cikin fasahohin ƙwarewa don tabbatar da ci gaba a wannan fanni.

Lokacin da aka haɗu da wannan nau'in fasaha, ya zama dole a samar da kayayyakin da aka sallamar dasu cikin hanyar magudanar ruwa ta biranen. su ne na musamman kwayoyin. In ba haka ba, aikin digesters na iya shafar kuma samar da gas mai wahala. Wannan ya faru a ƙasashe da yawa kuma an watsar da masu ba da izini.

Aikin da aka yadu a ko'ina cikin duniya shine na shara mai tsabta. Manufar wannan aikin shine na kawar da dimbin sharar da ake samu a manyan biranen kuma da wannan, tare da dabaru na zamani, zai yuwu a cira da tsarkake iskar methane da ake samarwa kuma shekarun da suka gabata wannan ya haifar da manyan matsaloli. Matsaloli kamar mutuwar ciyawar da ta kasance a yankunan da ke kusa da asibitoci, warin ƙanshi da yiwuwar fashewar abubuwa.

Ci gaban fasahohin haƙo biogas ya ba da dama ga biranen duniya, kamar su Santiago de Chile, su yi amfani da gas a matsayin tushen wutar lantarki a cikin cibiyar sadarwar iskar gas a cikin birane.

Gas na biogas yana da babban fata a nan gaba, tunda abin sabuntawa ne, makamashi mai tsafta wanda ke taimakawa sauƙaƙa gurɓataccen gurɓataccen gurɓataccen matsala. Bugu da kari, yana bayar da gudummawa kwarai da gaske ga harkar noma, yana bayarwa a matsayin takin gargajiya wanda yake taimakawa rayuwar rayuwar kayayyakin da yalwar amfanin gona.


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  1.   Da dai sauransu Jorge Bussi m

    Bosa,
    Ina bincike don yin biodigester.
    Yin aiki a gonar alade tare da kawuna 8000, Ina buƙatar kamfani wanda ke da ƙwarewa a cikin ginin biodigesters.
    Ku ci gaba da karantawa.
    Gaskiya
    G.Bussi