Fataucin Cellulosic

Fataucin Cellulosic

Akwai nau'ikan man shuke-shuke daban-daban waɗanda suka fito daga albarkatun ƙasa waɗanda za a iya sabunta su. Yau zamuyi magana akansa biofuels na cellulosic. Wannan nau'ikan man fetur ya fito ne daga ragowar kayan gona masu sauri, itace da ciyawa waɗanda za a iya canza su zuwa nau'ikan makamashin mai ciki har da mai na jet.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu bayyana abin da biofuels na cellulosic suke da kuma irin halayen da suke da su.

Menene biofuels na cellulosic

Cellulose

Ga al'umar yau ya kamata ya zama a fili cewa dole ne mu fita daga ɓangaren mai. Dogaro da wannan burbushin yana haifar da haɗarin da ba za'a iya jure shi ba ga tsaron ƙasa, tattalin arziki ko muhalli. Koyaya, tsarin tattalin arziki na yanzu baya hana amfani da waɗannan burbushin mai. Don neman sabbin hanyoyin samar da makamashi mai sabuntawa, ya zama dole a gano wani sabon wakili da zai iya tunkaho da jerin motocin duniya, tunda wannan shine babbar hanyar fitar da hayaki mai gurbata yanayi zuwa sararin samaniya.

Kusan zaku iya watsar da albarkatun mai daga kowane abu wanda yake ko ya kasance kayan lambu. Waɗanda suke ƙarni na farko sun fito ne daga masarrafan cin abinci, galibi masara da waken soya, gwangwani da gwoza, da sauransu. Su ne 'ya'yan itacen da ke kusa a cikin gandun dajin mai yuwuwar samun albarkatun mai tunda dabarun da ake buƙata waɗanda ake buƙata don cire su sun fi yawa.

Dole ne a ce haka wadannan man shuke-shuke ba wata mafita mai karko ba akan lokaci. Araasar da ake nomawa ta zama dole kuma ana iya samar da albarkatun mai kawai don rufe kashi 10% na duk bukatun mai na ruwa na ƙasashen da suka ci gaba. Ta hanyar neman yabanya mai girma, abincin dabbobi ya zama mai tsada kuma akan farashin wasu abinci, kodayake ba yawa bane ko kuma yadda yan jarida ke so kuyi imani yan shekarun baya. Da zarar anyi lissafin jimillar hayakin da ke kunshe a cikin matatun mai na farko, ba shi da amfani ga muhalli kamar yadda muke so.

Matakan hayaki mai gurbata muhalli

Rake

Ana iya sauƙaƙa wannan raunin cikin daidaiton iskar gas mai gurɓata yanayi a tsakanin shaƙuwa da ƙarni tare da amfani da albarkatun mai na ƙarni na biyu waɗanda aka samo daga kayan cellulosic. Wadannan kayan aikin cellulosic sune: ragowar itace kamar su ciyawa da ragowar gine-gine, aikin gona kamar masarar masara da ɓauren alkama. Hakanan muna samun albarkatun makamashi, ma'ana, tsire-tsire waɗanda suke da saurin girma kuma suna da abu a cikin gas ko kuma an shuka musamman don samar da makamashin mai.

Babban fa'idar da waɗannan albarkatun makamashin suke da shi shine ƙarancin kuɗin da suke yi yayin samar da su. Kawai wadatacce kuma baya shafar noman abinci, wanda ke da mahimmancin mahimmanci don la'akari. Yawancin albarkatun makamashi ana iya shukawa a ƙasa mai iyaka wanda ba a amfani da shi don noma. Wasu daga cikin wadannan gajerun-juyawar albarkatun willow zasu iya gurbata kasar yayin da suke girma.

Ofirƙirar biofuels na cellulosic

Kayan abu na Biofuel

Za'a iya girbe ɗimbin yawa na biomass mai ɗorewa don samar da mai. Akwai wasu karatuttukan da suka tabbatar da cewa, aƙalla, a cikin Amurka, za a iya samar da aƙalla tan miliyan 1.200 na busassun cellulosic biomass a kowace shekara ba tare da wannan rage haɓakar biomass ɗin da mutum ke amfani da shi ba, da dabbobi da kuma fitarwa. Da wannan ana iya samun lita sama da miliyan 400.000 na mai a shekara. Wannan adadin yayi daidai da rabin yawan kuɗin mai da dizal a Amurka a halin yanzu.

Wannan biomass din da aka kirkira za'a iya canza shi zuwa kowane nau'in mai na mai: ethanol, man fetur na yau da kullun, dizal har ma da jirgin mai. Ya fi sauƙi a narkar da ƙwayayen masara fiye da ruɓar da ƙwayoyin cellulose da aka bayar, amma a kwanan nan an sami ci gaba sosai. Injiniyoyin kimiyyar sinadarai suna da samfuran komputa na zamani masu ƙarfin gaske don gina sifofin da zasu iya sarrafa halayen a matakin atom. Waɗannan binciken an yi niyyar nan ba da daɗewa ba don faɗaɗa dabarun canzawa zuwa filin matatar mai. Zamanin mai na cellulosic yanzu yana hannunmu.

Bayan haka, mahimmancin ma'anar cellulose shine ya samar da tsarin shuka. Wannan tsarin ya kunshi daskararrun ma'aunin kwayoyi masu kullewa wanda ke tallafawa ci gaban a tsaye wanda zai iya tsayayya da lalata kwayoyin. Domin sakin makamashin da cellulose ke dauke dashi don warware kullin kwayoyin halittar da juyin halitta ya samar.

Tsarin samar da wuta ta hanyar biomass na cellulosic

Tsarin yana farawa ne ta hanyar rarraba daskararren kwayar halitta zuwa kananan kwayoyin. Wadannan kwayoyin suna kara inganta don samun mai. Hanyoyin yawanci ana rarraba su ta zafin jiki. Muna da hanyoyi masu zuwa:

  • Hanyar ƙananan zafin jiki: Wannan hanyar tana aiki tare da yanayin zafi tsakanin digiri 50 da 200 kuma tana samar da sugars din da zasu iya kumbura cikin ethanol da sauran mai. Wannan yana faruwa daidai kamar yadda ake amfani da shi na yanzu don amfanin masara da noman rake.
  • Babban yanayin zafin jiki: Wannan hanyar tana aiki a yanayin zafi tsakanin digiri 300 zuwa 600 kuma an sami bio-oil wanda za'a iya tatso shi don samar da mai ko dizal.
  • Hanya mai tsananin zafi: Wannan hanyar tana aiki a yanayin zafi sama da digiri 700. A wannan aikin ana samar da gas wanda zai iya canzawa zuwa mai mai ruwa.

A yanzu, ba a san wace hanya ba ce wacce za ta sauya matsakaicin adadin makamashin da aka adana daga man fetur a mafi ƙarancin farashi. Dole ne a bi hanyoyi daban-daban don kayan aikin biomass daban-daban. Jiyya zuwa yanayin zafi mai yawa na iya zama mafi kyau ga dazuzzuka, yayin da ƙarancin yanayin zafi zai yi aiki mafi kyau ga ciyawa. Duk ya dogara da adadin kayan da dole ne a rage don samar da mai.

A takaice, cellulose ya kunshi carbon, oxygen, da hydrogen atoms. Gasoline, a nasa bangaren, ya ƙunshi carbon da hydrogen. Juyin cellulose a cikin biofuels ya kunshi, to, a cikin kawar da iskar oxygen daga cikin cellulose don samun kwayoyi masu nauyin karfi wanda ke dauke da carbon da hydrogen kawai.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da albarkatun mai na cellulosic.


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