Fuarfin makamashi

Fuarfin makamashi

Don kaucewa amfani da kayan masarufi wadanda ke haifar da karuwar dumamar yanayi saboda na hayaki mai gurbata muhalli, a kowace rana ana kara bincike kuma ana samarda wasu nau'ikan madadin kuzari kamar sabuntawar da muka sani.

Daga cikin kuzarin sabuntawa akwai nau'ikan da yawa: hasken rana, iska, geothermal, hydraulic, biomass, da sauransu. Fuarfin makamashi Nau'in sabuntawar makamashi ne wanda ake samu ta hanyar kwayar halitta wacce ke iya maye gurbin mai. Kuna so ku sani game da makamashin mai?

Asali da tarihin makamashin mai

Asalin makamashin mai

da biofuels Ba su da sabon abu kamar yadda aka yi imani da su, amma an haife su kusan daidai da burbushin mai da injunan konewa.

Fiye da shekaru 100 da suka gabata, Rudolf Diesel ya kirkiro samfurin injin da ke amfani da gyada ko man gyada, wanda daga baya ya zama man dizal, amma da yake mai ya fi sauki da rahusa, sai aka fara amfani da wannan burbushin.

A cikin 1908 Henry Ford a cikin Model T yayi amfani da ethanol a cikin ƙa'idodinta. Wani aikin mai ban sha'awa a wannan lokacin shine kamfanin mai na Standard a tsakanin shekarun 1920 zuwa 1924 ya sayar da mai tare da kashi 25% na ethanol, amma tsadar masara ya sanya wannan samfurin ya zama ba zai yiwu ba.

A cikin 30s, Ford da wasu sun yi ƙoƙarin rayar da masana'antar sarrafa mai ta yadda suka gina a tsire-tsire a Kansas wanda ya samar da kusan lita 38.000 na ethanol a kowace rana dangane da amfani da masara a matsayin kayan ɗanɗano. A wannan lokacin, fiye da tashoshin sabis 2000 waɗanda suka siyar da wannan samfurin.

A cikin 40s, dole ne a rufe wannan injin tunda ba zai iya yin gogayya da farashin man fetur.

A cikin shekarun 70s sakamakon matsalar mai Amurka ta sake hada man fetur da ethanol, tana ba da gagarumar nasara ga man shuke-shuke wanda bai daina girma daga wadannan shekarun zuwa yanzu a wannan kasar ba har ma da Turai.

Har zuwa tsakiyar 80s, mutane suna aiki suna gwaji tare da ƙarancin mai na ƙarni na farko da na biyu dangane da kayan abinci, amma bangarori daban daban sun bayyana wadanda suka yi gargadi game da hatsarin amfani da abinci wajen yin mai.

Gabanin wannan yanayin, bincike ya fara don madadin albarkatun ƙasa waɗanda ba sa shafar su tanadin abinci kamar algae da sauran kayan lambu waɗanda ba abin cinsu bane suna haifar da ƙaruwar ƙarfe na uku.

Abubuwan da ake amfani da su a cikin halittu za su zama gwarzo a ƙarni na XNUMX saboda sun fi burbushin halittu.

Biofuel a matsayin makamashi mai sabuntawa

Masarufi

Tun juyin juya halin masana'antu, mutane sun tallafawa da haɓaka kimiyya da fasaha da makamashi wanda ke zuwa daga burbushin mai. Wadannan su ne mai, kwal da iskar gas. Duk da ingancin waɗannan kuzari da ƙarfin kuzarinsu, waɗannan man suna da iyaka kuma suna gudu da sauri. Bugu da kari, amfani da wadannan makamashin yana haifar da hayaki mai gurbata muhalli a cikin sararin samaniya wanda ke kiyaye karin zafi a ciki kuma yana taimakawa dumamar yanayi da canjin yanayi.

Saboda wadannan dalilan, ana kokarin nemo wasu makamashi wadanda zasu taimaka wajen saukaka matsalolin da ke tattare da amfani da mai. A wannan yanayin, ana daukar man shuke-shuke a matsayin nau'in makamashi mai sabuntawa, tunda an samar dasu ne daga kwayar halittar shuke-shuke. Biomass na tsire-tsire, ba kamar mai ba, ba ya ɗaukar miliyoyin shekaru don samarwa, amma a kan ma'aunin da mutane ke iya sarrafawa. Hakanan galibi ana samar da albarkatun mai daga albarkatun gona waɗanda za'a iya sake shuka su.

Daga cikin man da muke dasu ethanol da kuma man gas.

Ethanol a matsayin mai na mai

Ethanol shine sanannen sanannen mai a duniya. Ana samar da shi daga masara. Ethanol galibi ana haɗe shi da mai domin ƙirƙirar ingantaccen mai mai tsabta don amfani a cikin ababen hawa. Kusan rabin dukkan mai a Amurka shine E-10, wanda ya haɗu da kashi 10 cikin ɗari na ethanol da kashi 90 cikin ɗari na mai. E-85 shine kashi 85 cikin ɗari na ethanol da kashi 15 cikin ɗari na gas kuma ana amfani da shi don ƙarfafa motocin sassauƙa-mai.

Kamar yadda ake samar da ita daga masara, zamu iya cewa za'a iya sabuntawa, tunda ana sabunta gonakin masara. Wannan yana taimakawa wajen sanya shi mara tushe kamar mai ko gawayi. Hakanan yana da fa'ida cewa yana taimakawa cikin hayaƙin haya mai gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iska, tun lokacin noman masara, photosynthesis yana faruwa kuma suna karɓar CO2 daga yanayin.

Abincin mai

biodiesel

Biodiesel wani nau'in biofuel ne wanda ake samar dashi daga sababbi da kuma wanda aka yi amfani da shi da kuma kayan mai na dabba. Biodiesel ya shahara sosai kuma ya yadu a duk duniya saboda gaskiyar cewa mutane da yawa sun fara yin nasu man a gida don kauce wa kashe kuɗi da yawa a mai da motocinku.

Ana iya amfani da biodiesel a cikin motocin da ke amfani da man dizal da yawa ba tare da gyara injin ba. Koyaya, tsofaffin injunan dizal na iya buƙatar yin garambawul kafin su iya sarrafa biodiesel. A cikin recentan shekarun nan wata karamar masana'antar sarrafa mai ta girma a cikin Amurka kuma tuni ana samun biodiesel a wasu tashoshin sabis.

Amfanin amfani makamashin makamashi

Akwai fa'idodi da yawa waɗanda muke samu ta amfani da makamashin mai. Daga cikin waɗancan fa'idodin muna da:

  • Nau'i ne na sabunta makamashi kuma ana samar dashi a cikin gida. Wannan yana taimakawa tare da farashin sufuri da ajiyar ajiya, ban da rage fitar da hayaki mai gurbata yanayi.
  • Yana taimaka mana rage dogaro da ɗan adam kan mai ko wani nau'in burbushin halittu.
  • Ga kasashen da ba sa samar da mai, kasancewar mai na taimakawa tattalin arziki, tunda a wurare kamar wannan farashin mai na ci gaba da hauhawa.
  • Ethanol, kasancewar shi oxygenate a cikin mai, yana inganta ƙimar da take samu sosai, wanda ke taimakawa gurɓata biranenmu da rage iskar gas.
  • Ethanol yana da octane rating na 113 kuma yana cin wuta mafi kyau a matse mai yawa fiye da mai. Wannan yana ba da ƙarin ƙarfi ga injunan.
  • Ethanol yana aiki ne azaman daskarewa a cikin injuna, yana inganta injin sanyi kuma yana hana daskarewa.
  • Ta hanyar zuwa daga tushen noma, ƙimar kayayyakin yana ƙaruwa, kara kudin shiga na mazauna karkara.

Rashin dacewar amfani da makamashin mai

Gurbatarwar daga samar da ethanol

Kodayake fa'idodin suna bayyane kuma tabbatattu, amfani da makamashin makamashi yana da wasu rashin amfani kamar:

  • Ethanol ya ƙone 25% zuwa 30% cikin sauri fiye da mai. Wannan yana haifar dashi da ƙarancin farashi.
  • A cikin ƙasashe da yawa ana samar da mai daga ƙamshin sukari. Da zarar an tattara kayan, an kona sandunan girbin. Wannan yana haifar da hayaƙin methane da nitrous oxide, wanda ke kara dumamar yanayi, tunda gas biyu ne masu dumama yanayi saboda karfinsu na rike zafi. Saboda haka, abin da muke adana a cikin hayaƙi a gefe guda, muna fitarwa akan ɗayan.
  • Lokacin da ake samar da ethanol daga masara, ana amfani da iskar gas ko gawayi don samar da tururi yayin samarwar. Menene ƙari, Takin nitrogen da magungunan kashe ciyawa sun zube a cikin aikin noman masara wanda ke gurɓata ruwa da ƙasa. Ana iya warware wannan ta amfani da ƙwayoyin halitta ko kuma aƙalla tsarin samar da kayan aikin gona. Hakanan ana iya amfani da CO2 daga distilleries don samar da algae (wanda kuma ana iya amfani da shi don samar da albarkatun mai). Bugu da kari, idan akwai gonaki a kusa, ana iya amfani da methane daga taki don samar da tururi (a zahiri wannan yayi daidai da amfani da biogas don samar da mai).

Kamar yadda kake gani, da makamashin makamashi yana cigaba a kan hanyarta azaman karin makamashi mai sabuntawa. Koyaya, akwai ci gaba da yawa da haɓakawa wanda yake buƙatar zama sabon tushen makamashi ga ababen hawa a duk duniya.


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