Sassan shuka

ƙwayoyin cuta

Yawancin mutane na iya gane ainihin Sassan shuka kamar yadda akwai electrons tare da bishiyar polar a kowace shuka. Duk da haka, yana yiwuwa ba kowane ɗayan sassan shuka a cikin kankare da daki-daki ba.

Saboda haka, za mu keɓe wannan labarin don gaya muku menene ainihin sassan shuka dalla-dalla da kuma menene ayyukan kowannensu.

Sassan shuka

sassan shuka da aka kwatanta

Idan muka takaita wanne ne manyan sassan shuka, muna iya cewa su ne kamar haka:

  • Kara
  • Tushen
  • Bar
  • Flor
  • 'Ya'yan itãcen marmari

Wannan yakan bambanta kusan kowa da kowa. Duk da haka, halayen kowane sassa na shuka ba a san su sosai a cikin irin wannan dalla-dalla ba a cikin hanyar da ta dace. Za mu rubuta daya bayan daya menene sassan shuka.

Kara

sassan shukar gida

Kara shine sashin iska na shuka, kuma daya daga cikin ayyukansa shine samar da tallafi da tsari, yana tallafawa sauran gabobin tsiron da ke sama da kasa, kamar ganye da furanni. Babban fasalinsa shi ne yana nuna mummunan geotropism, wanda ke nufin cewa yana girma a kishiyar yanayin nauyi. Ko da yake mun ambata cewa sashin iska ne na shuka, amma gaskiyar ita ce, akwai nau'ikan mai tushe da yawa da ayyukansu:

Za a iya rarraba su ta hanyoyi daban-daban, amma an fi rarraba su ne bisa yanayin da ake samun su, ta haka ne ake bambancewa tsakanin tsiron karkashin kasa da na iska.

  • A karkashin kasa mai tushe An raba su zuwa tubers, rhizomes da kwararan fitila.
  • Tushen iska Za a iya raba su zuwa tsaunuka masu tsayi, stolons, hawan mai tushe da murƙushe mai tushe, amma akwai kuma mai tushe na musamman irin su prickly, stoloniferous ko tendril.

Kamar yadda muka fada, daya daga cikin manyan ayyuka guda biyu na tushe shine tallafawa dukkan sassan iska na shuka. Sauran shine jigilar kayan abinci da abubuwa ta cikin cikin shuka. Daga tushen tushen, abin da ake kira danyen sap yana hawa bututun kara zuwa ga ganye, inda aka wadatar da shi da carbon dioxide kuma ya samar da ruwa mai kyau, wanda shine abincin shuka.

Tushen

Tushen suna da sauƙin ganewa akan yawancin tsire-tsire. Se yana hulɗa da ɓangaren reshe wanda aka fi samun a ƙarƙashin ƙasa. Yana hidima don ciyar da shuka tare da abubuwan gina jiki daga ƙasa. Su ne gabobin farko da tsire-tsire ke tasowa idan sun yi tsiro. Ana iya cewa tushen shine mafi mahimmancin ɓangaren shuka. Akwai nau'ikan tushen kuma ana iya rarraba su daban-daban dangane da anka da shukar ke bayarwa, siffar da kuma alkiblar girma.

Tushen suna da aiki mai mahimmanci a cikin shuka. Bari mu ga abin da manyan ayyuka na tushen su ne:

  • Kamar yadda muka ce, daya daga cikin manyan ayyuka na tushen shine shan ruwa da abinci mai gina jiki ta cikin ƙananan gashin da suke da shi, sannan su wuce abinci ta cikin tushe zuwa sauran shuka.
  • Wani aikin da suka cika shi ne ya ɗora dukkan tsarin shuka a tsakiya, ko dai ta hanyar tushen da ke ƙarƙashin ƙasa mai zurfi, ko kuma ta hanyar tushen iska da aka makale zuwa wasu tsire-tsire ko saman.
  • Wasu tushen suna da da ikon photosynthesize ko kuma su manne da wasu shuke-shuke don shanye abubuwan gina jiki.

Bar

girma shuka

Ganyen suna daya daga cikin sassan da aka fi sani da kowace tsiro, suna nan a kusan dukkan tsirorin duk da nau’in nau’in nau’in nau’in nau’in tsiro da girma da kuma launi, bugu da kari kuma ganyen tsiron na da muhimman ayyuka kamar photosynthesis da dai sauransu.

Su gabobin tsiro ne, gabaɗaya sirara da launin kore, waɗanda ke tsiro daga harbe ko mai tushe na ciyayi. Ana iya rarraba su ta hanyoyi daban-daban: bisa ga petioles, margins, haƙarƙari har ma da siffar. A daya bangaren kuma, mafi mahimmancin rabe-rabensa ya dogara ne akan ko shukar tana adana ganyen duk shekara kuma suna dawwama, ko kuma idan ya rasa su a cikin watanni masu sanyi kuma sun bushe.

Ganyen suna cika ayyuka uku:

  • Suna photosynthesize don samun makamashin sinadarai daga hasken rana.
  • Suna ba da damar shuke-shuke su shaƙa da musayar iskar gas a cikin dare.
  • Suna zufa, yana barin wuce gona da iri ya gudana ta cikin su.

Flores

A game da tsire-tsire da yawa, furen shine mafi kyawun sashi ga mutane, kuma ita ce ke da alhakin haifuwar shuka. Furanni sau da yawa suna da launin launi don wannan dalili: don jawo hankalin kwari masu pollinating. Amma duk da haka, duk tsire-tsire suna haifuwa ta furanni.

Akwai nau'ikan furanni da yawa waɗanda suka bambanta da girma, launi, siffar, da ƙamshi. Furanni suna da calyx, corolla, stamens, filaments, da pistils. Pollen yana samuwa a cikin stamens (gabobin jima'i na shuke-shuke na maza), kuma tsarin samar da sababbin tsire-tsire yana faruwa lokacin da ake jigilar pollen zuwa pistils na sassan mata.

'Ya'yan itãcen marmari

Ba duka tsire-tsire suke ba da ’ya’ya ba, amma waɗanda suke haifuwa ta hanyar jima’i ta iri sukan ba da ’ya’ya. Lokacin da furen ya hadu, yana fitar da tsaba masu samar da 'ya'yan itatuwa a kusa da shi. Kamar ganye da furanni, akwai nau'ikan 'ya'yan itatuwa ko kayan marmari da yawa. Duk wani 'ya'yan itace da kuke ci kullum 'ya'yan itace ne ko itace. amma haka 'ya'yan itatuwa da muke ci kamar goro.

Ayyukan 'ya'yan itacen yawanci shine kare iri yayin da suke sauƙaƙe watsawa ta hanyar ayyukan dabba, wanda ke cinye 'ya'yan itace da kuma ajiye iri a wani wuri, don haka sauƙaƙe haifuwa na nau'in.

Irin yana da mahimmanci ga shuke-shuke tun tare da su zasu iya dawwamar da kwayoyin halittar su. Akwai nau'ikan da yawa: masu fika-fikai, wadanda suka kankance kan fil, girman kwallon kwallon tanis ... Don tsiro, yana da mahimmanci yanayin ya dace da kowane jinsi. Don haka, idan misali ya fito daga mazaunin da hunturu ke da sanyi sosai, don su tsiro, zai zama dole yanayin zafi ya yi ƙasa.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da sassan shuka tare da halayensa.


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