Hasken nukiliya

makamashin nukiliya

A fagen makamashin nukiliya, Hasken nukiliya. An kuma san shi da sunan aikin rediyo. Shine sakin fuska na barbashi ko shuke-shuke ko kuma a lokaci guda. Waɗannan ƙwayoyin da raɗaɗin sun fito ne daga tarwatsewar wasu ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ke samar da su. Manufar makamashin nukiliya ita ce tarwatsa tsarin halittun atom don samar da makamashi ta hanyar fitinar nukiliya.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu baku labarin menene radiation na nukiliya, halaye da kuma muhimmancin sa.

Babban fasali

wurare masu haɗari na nukiliya

Radioactivity shine watsi da hankali na barbashi ko radiation, ko duka biyun. Waɗannan ƙwayoyin da raɗaɗin sun fito ne daga bazuwar wasu ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ke samar da su. Suna wargajewa saboda tsarin tsarukan ciki.

Lalacewar radiyo yana faruwa a cikin mawuyacin yanayi. Wato, waɗanda ba su da isasshen kuzari na ɗaure mahaɗan wuri guda. Antoine-Henri Becquerel ya gano haskakawa ta hanyar haɗari. Daga baya, ta hanyar gwajin Becquerel, Madame Curie ta gano wasu kayan aikin rediyo. Akwai nau'ikan jujjuyawar nukiliya iri biyu: wucin gadi da na yanayin rediyo.

Yanayin rediyo na halitta shine yanayin rediyo wanda yake faruwa a yanayi saboda sarkar abubuwan da suka shafi rediyo da kuma hanyoyin da ba na mutane ba. Ya kasance koyaushe a cikin yanayin. Hakanan za'a iya haɓaka aikin rediyo na yanayi ta hanyoyi masu zuwa:

  • Sanadin halitta. Misali, aman wuta.
  • Dalilin kai tsaye na ɗan adam. Misali, tono kasa don gina harsashin gini ko bunkasa makamashin nukiliya.

A gefe guda, aikin rediyo na roba duk radiyo ne ko fitowar ionizing daga asalin mutum. Bambanci kawai tsakanin radiation na halitta da radiation na mutum shine tushenta. Illolin nau'ikan radiation iri biyu iri ɗaya ne. Misali na aikin rediyo na wucin gadi shine aikin rediyo wanda aka samar a cikin maganin nukiliya ko halayen rarar nukiliya a cikin tsire-tsire masu ƙarfin nukiliya don samun wutar lantarki.

A cikin duka lamuran guda biyu, radiation kai tsaye mai tasiri shine alpha radiation da lalata beta wanda ya kunshi lantarki. A gefe guda kuma, radiation ionizing kai tsaye kai tsaye shine electromagnetic radiation, kamar gamma rays, wadanda suke photon. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da ko zubar da tushen raɗaɗar da mutum ya yi, kamar su maɓuɓɓugar iska, yawanci ana samar da sharar iska.

Nau'in zafin nukiliya

Hasken nukiliya

Akwai nau'ikan radiyon nukiliya iri uku da aka fitarwa: alpha, beta da haskoki gamma. Abubuwan Alpha sune waɗanda ke da caji mai kyau, ƙwayoyin beta marasa kyau, kuma hasken gamma tsaka tsaki ne.

Ana iya yin la'akari electromagnetic radiation zuwa gamma radiation da X-rays. Hakanan ana fitar dasu daga alpha da beta radiation. Kowane irin watsi yana da lokaci daban-daban na kutsawa cikin kwayoyin halitta da kuzarin ionization. Mun sani cewa wannan nau’in jujjuyawar nukiliyar na iya haifar da mummunar illa ga rayuwa ta hanyoyi daban-daban. Zamuyi nazarin kowane irin tasirin nukiliyar da ke akwai da kuma sakamakonsa:

Alpha barbashi

Alpha (α) barbashi ko hasken alfa wani nau'i ne na haɓakar ƙwayar ƙwayar ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta mai ƙarfi. Kusan ba shi da ikon shiga cikin kyallen takarda saboda suna da girma. Sun haɗu da proton biyu da neutron biyu, waɗanda ke tare da ƙarfi.

Hasken Alpha, saboda cajin wutar lantarki, suna hulɗa da kwayoyin halitta da ƙarfi. Suna sauƙin karɓar kayan. Suna iya tashi 'yan inci kaɗan kawai a cikin iska. Ana iya shigar dasu cikin layin waje na fata na mutum, don haka basu da haɗari ga rayuwa sai dai idan an shaƙata ko kuma a cinye tushen. A wannan yanayin, duk da haka, lalacewar zata fi wacce lalacewar ta kowane ɗayan iska ta iska. A manyan allurai, duk alamun bayyanar cutar guba ta radiation zasu bayyana.

Beta barbashi

Beta radiation wani nau'i ne na ionizing radiation wanda wasu nau'ikan nuclei radioactive ke watsawa. Idan aka kwatanta da hulɗar ƙwayoyin alpha, hulɗar tsakanin ƙwayoyin beta da kwayar halitta galibi tana da iyaka sau goma kuma ƙarfin ionization daidai yake da ɗaya bisa goma. An katange su gaba ɗaya ta aan milimita na aluminum.

Gamma barbashi

Gamma rays sune electromagnetic radiation da ake samu ta hanyar rediyo. Suna daidaita tsakiya ba tare da canza abinda ke ciki na proton ba. Sun shiga cikin zurfin fiye da β radiation, amma suna da ƙananan digiri na ionization.

Lokacin da kwayar zarra mai cike da farin ciki take fitar da iska gamma, yawanta da kwayar zarra ba zasu canza ba. Za ku rasa adadin ƙarfin ku ne kawai. Radilar Gamma na iya haifar da mummunar illa ga ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin halitta, wanda shine dalilin da ya sa ake amfani da shi don ba da abinci da kayan aikin likita.

Hasken nukiliya a cikin tsire-tsire masu ƙarfi

radioactivity

Cibiyar makamashin nukiliya wata cibiya ce ta masana'antu da ke amfani da makamashin nukiliya don samar da wutar lantarki. Yana daga cikin dangin tsire-tsire masu amfani da wutar lantarki, wanda ke nufin cewa yana amfani da zafin rana don samar da wutar lantarki. Wannan zafin yana zuwa ne daga fission na abubuwa kamar uranium da plutonium. Aikin cibiyoyin makamashin nukiliya ya dogara ne akan amfani da zafi don tuka turbin ta hanyar aikin tururin ruwa, wanda aka haɗa shi da janareto. Mazaunin fission na nukiliya wani kayan aiki ne wanda zai iya farawa, kiyayewa da sarrafa halayen halayen sarkar, kuma yana da wadatacciyar hanyar cire zafin da aka samar. Don samun tururin ruwa, ana amfani da uranium ko plutonium a matsayin mai. Za'a iya sauƙaƙe aikin a matakai biyar:

  • Fisshin uranium yana faruwa ne a cikin makaman nukiliya, yana sakin makamashi mai yawa don zafin ruwan har sai ya ƙafe.
  • Ana kawo tururi zuwa ga janareto na tururin tururi wanda aka saita ta cikin madafan tururi.
  • Da zarar can, sandunan turbine suna juyawa kuma suna motsa janareta ƙarƙashin aikin tururi, don haka canza makamashin inji zuwa makamashin lantarki.
  • Lokacin da tururin ruwan ya bi ta cikin injin turbin, sai a aika shi zuwa ga mai sanya shi, inda yake yin sanyi kuma ya zama ruwa.
  • Bayan haka, ana hawa ruwan don sake samun tururi, don haka rufe zagayen ruwa.

Ana adana ragowar uranium fission a cikin masana'antar, a cikin wuraren waha na musamman na kayan aikin rediyo.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da meye hasken nukiliya da halayensa.


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