Green hydrogen matsaloli

makomar hydrogen

Green hydrogen wani nau'i ne na hydrogen da ake samarwa ta hanyar tsarin da ake kira ruwa electrolysis, wanda ke amfani da wutar lantarki daga hanyoyin da ake sabuntawa, kamar wutar lantarki ko hasken rana. Ana ɗaukar wannan fasaha a matsayin madadin makamashin burbushin halittu, tunda samar da koren hydrogen ba shi da carbon. Duk da haka, akwai wasu Green hydrogen matsaloli wanda dole ne a yi la'akari da shi a matsayin madadin man fetur a hukumance.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku game da manyan matsalolin koren hydrogen, halaye, amfani da rashin amfani.

kore hydrogen samar

makamashi mai sabuntawa

Hydrogen yana da ikon adana makamashi wanda za'a iya amfani dashi lokacin da ake bukata. Wannan ba sabon abu ba ne. Amma hydrogen ba shi kaɗai ba ne a duniya. A koyaushe ana haɗa shi da wasu ƙwayoyin cuta don samar da abubuwa. Mafi sauƙaƙa: ruwa da sanannen dabararsa na ƙwayoyin cuta H2O. Atom ɗin hydrogen guda biyu suna haɗuwa da oxygen ɗaya.

Amma kuma ana samunsa a cikin albarkatun mai kamar methane ko kuma mai. A halin yanzu, Kashi 99% na sinadarin hydrogen a Spain ya fito ne daga wadannan burbushin halittu. A cewar Hukumar Makamashi ta Duniya, sayan hydrogen na duniya yana haifar da hayakin carbon dioxide kusan tan miliyan 900 a kowace shekara.

Don tattara hydrogen daga abinci mai tsabta kamar ruwa, wajibi ne a yi amfani da wutar lantarki zuwa gare shi don raba abubuwan da ke cikinsa kuma ya ware hydrogen. Idan wutar lantarki da ake amfani da ita a tsarin lantarki ta fito ne daga tushen da za a iya sabuntawa, irin su hasken rana ko injin injin iska, ana kiranta koren hydrogen. Ta hanyar sakin makamashin da aka adana, ba ya fitar da iskar gas. Don haka, yana magance matsalar sauyin yanayi cikin aminci.

makamashi ajiya

Idan ana amfani da wutar lantarki ta wuraren shakatawa na photovoltaic ko injin turbin iska don samar da hydrogen da aka raba daga ruwa, wannan zai zama mai. Ma’ana, wannan makamashi (lantarki) ba a rasa ko amfani da shi idan aka samar da shi: Sannan ana iya fitar da hydrogen ta injuna, injina ko batura masu fasahar da ta dace.

Ma'aikatar Canjin Muhalli ta bayyana cewa rawar da take takawa a matsayin ajiyar yanayi za ta kasance mahimmi, idan aka yi la'akari da yadda ake amfani da rarar makamashin da za a iya sabuntawa a cikin tsarin wutar lantarki da ake samun sabuntawa. Wannan zai zama daya daga cikin hanyoyin magance samar da wutar lantarki yayin da albarkatun da ake sabunta su ba su da yawa.

Green hydrogen matsaloli

koren hydrogen matsaloli a samar

Matsalar dole ta zama tsada da wahalar samarwa. Na farko, duk da cewa hydrogen yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da suka fi yawa a doron kasa, amma ba a samuwa da sauri saboda ba a keɓance shi a yanayi, amma a maimakon haka. ana samar da ita daga wasu sinadarai masu dauke da sinadarin hydrogen, kamar ruwa, gawayi, da iskar gas. Hanyar da ta dace don samar da ita ita ce samun shi kai tsaye daga ruwa (wanda ke cikin kashi 70 cikin 2 na sararin duniya) ta hanyar tsarin da ake kira electrolysis, wanda ya ƙunshi bazuwar kwayoyin ruwa (H2O), wanda ya bazu zuwa oxygen (O2). da hydrogen (HXNUMX).

Duk da haka, wannan yawanci tsari ne mai tsada wanda ke buƙatar wutar lantarki mai yawa (ba daga tushen sabuntawa ba a mafi yawan lokuta) don kunna wutar lantarki. Wahalhalun samun hydrogen mai tsafta 100% ya sa masu kera su rarraba samfuran da aka samu gwargwadon ƙimar su mai dorewa. Don haka, hydrogen mai launin toka, wanda a halin yanzu aka fi amfani da shi, shi ne mafi ƙarancin muhalli, tun da samar da shi yana ci gaba da buƙatar burbushin mai.

A matsayin madadin, "blue ko low carbon hydrogen" har yanzu yana buƙatar burbushin mai amma yana fitar da ƙarancin carbon saboda ana cire shi ta hanyar da aka sani da "kamawa da adanawa." Zaɓin mafi kore shine "Hydrogen Green" wanda aka samar daga makamashi mai sabuntawa, madadin 100% mai dorewa amma mafi ƙarancin kowa a kasuwa.

Nawa ne kudin samar da hydrogen?

Binciken da aka buga kwanan nan a cikin wata mujalla ta musamman ta Nature Energy ya yi niyyar ƙididdige yawan kuɗin da ake kashewa wajen samar da hydrogen daga wutar lantarki (ta hanyar lantarki) don tantance ko wata hanya ce ta kasuwanci. Don yin wannan, masu binciken sun tattara bayanai game da farashi da farashin hydrogen kuma sun kwatanta shi da farashin wutar lantarki a kasuwannin tallace-tallace da cikakkun bayanai na tsawon shekara game da samar da wutar lantarki a Jamus da Amurka.

Ya kammala da cewa tsarin matasan (samuwar hydrogen daga makamashi mai sabuntawa, yawanci iska ko hasken rana) yana iya samun riba daga Yuro 3,23 a kowace kilogram. Duk da haka, wannan binciken ya lura cewa farashin na'urorin lantarki na raguwa sosai, wanda zai iya rage yawan farashin samar da hydrogen daga hanyoyin da ake sabuntawa, wanda ke wakiltar "cikakken shekaru goma da rabi" dangane da dorewar makamashi.

A gaskiya ma, a cewar Javier Bray, shugaban kungiyar makamashin hydrogen ta Spain, ya riga ya yiyu sosai. Electrolysis ita ce hanya ta biyu a duniya don samar da hydrogen akan sikelin masana'antu. Bugu da ƙari kuma, hanya ce mai tsabta kuma farashinta ya yi daidai da wutar lantarki da ake amfani da shi wajen samar da shi. Ga gwani, ƙimar ƙasa da cents 2,5 a kowace kWh suna ba mu farashin kusan Yuro 2,5 a kowace kilogram, wanda ya sa ya zama mafita mai mahimmanci don lalatawar sassa kamar masana'antu, sufuri ko makamashi.

Abũbuwan amfãni

Green hydrogen matsaloli

Kodayake a halin yanzu shine mafi ƙarancin samarwa a kasuwa, yana da fa'idodi masu yawa waɗanda ke zaune cikin babban yuwuwar sa:

  • rage fitar da iska: Samfura da amfani da koren hydrogen ba ya fitar da carbon dioxide ko wasu gurɓataccen gurɓataccen yanayi, wanda kai tsaye yana taimakawa wajen rage fitar da hayaki mai gurbata yanayi da kuma taimakawa wajen yaƙi da sauyin yanayi.
  • Ingantacciyar ajiyar makamashi: Ana iya adana koren hydrogen cikin sauƙi, yana mai da shi mafita mai ban sha'awa don adana makamashi mai sabuntawa a lokutan da buƙata ta yi ƙasa kuma tsararru ta yi yawa.
  • aikace-aikace masu yawa: Ana iya amfani da shi wajen sarrafa motocin lantarki, a matsayin mai don samar da wutar lantarki a masana'antu, da kuma matsayin danyen abu wajen samar da sinadarai da taki.
  • 'Yancin makamashi: Ta hanyar dogaro da hanyoyin samar da makamashi mai sabuntawa don samar da shi, koren hydrogen yana rage dogaro ga albarkatun mai da ake shigowa da su da kuma hauhawar farashin da ke da alaƙa da waɗannan albarkatun da ba za a iya sabuntawa ba.
  • Mai tsabta mai tsabta don masana'antu: Green hydrogen yana ba da zaɓi mai tsabta da ɗorewa ga masana'antu, don haka rage tasirin muhalli da kuma ba da gudummawa ga sauyi zuwa ƙananan tattalin arzikin carbon.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da matsalolin koren hydrogen, halayensa da fa'idodin da yake da shi.


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