Idalarfin ruwa ko ƙarfi

Energyarfin ruwan teku

Energyarfin igiyar ruwa ko fiye da ilimin kimiyya da aka sani da tasirin kwari shine wanda yake haifar da sakamakon amfanuwa da tayin, wato, bambanci a matsakaicin tsayin tekuna gwargwadon matsayin Duniya da Wata kuma hakan na faruwa ne daga jan hankali na karshen da Rana kan yawan ruwan tekun.

Tare da wannan lokacin zamu iya cewa motsi na ruwaye, wanda ke haifar da jan hankalin Wata sau biyu a rana, yana yiwuwa a yi amfani da shi azaman tushen makamashi.

Wannan motsi ya kunshi tashi a matakin teku, wanda a wasu yankuna na iya zama babba.

Wata yana rasa kuzari, a hankali a hankali, kuma yana samar da karfi na igiyar ruwa, wanda hakan ke sa a samu shi a wani babban bambanci da duniya.

Matsakaicin ɓarkewar makamashi a cikin nau'in tasirin igiyar ruwa kusan 3,1012 watts, ko kuma kusan sau 100.000 ƙasa da matsakaicin hasken rana da ake samu a duniya.

Tarfin tashin hankali ba wai kawai yana tasiri cikin tekuna ba ne, yana haifar da igiyar ruwa, amma su ma shafi kwayoyin halitta, haifar da hadaddun abubuwanda suka shafi halittu wadanda suka zama bangare na halittun biorhythms.

Ruwan da Wata ya samar a cikin tekun ba su kai mita daya ba, amma a waɗancan wuraren da yanayin yanayin ƙasa ya faɗaɗa tasirin igiyar ruwa, canjin yanayi mafi girma na iya faruwa.

Wannan yana faruwa ne a cikin ƙananan ƙananan yankuna masu zurfi, waɗanda ke kan gadon nahiya kuma waɗannan yankunan ne mutum zai iya amfani da su don samun kuzari ta hanyar tasirin ruwa.

Amfani da kuzari mai ƙarfi

Sabanin abin da mutum zai yi tunanin tasirin igiyar ruwa, an yi amfani da shi tun da daɗewa, a zamanin d Misira an yi amfani da shi kuma a Turai an fara amfani da shi a ƙarni na XNUMX.

A cikin 1580, an sanya ƙafafu masu juyawa guda huɗu 4 a ƙarƙashin baka na London Bridge don ɗiban ruwa., wanda ya ci gaba da aiki har zuwa 1824, har zuwa yakin duniya na biyu, masana’antu da yawa suna aiki a Turai, wanda ya yi amfani da ƙarfin tayin.

Daya daga cikin na karshe ya daina aiki a Devon, UK, a 1956.

Koyaya, tun daga 1945 ba a da sha'awar ƙaramar iko.

Amfani da kuzari mai ƙarfi

Yin amfani da kuzari mai ƙarfi a ƙa'ida yana da sauƙi kuma yana da kyau kwatankwacin na wutar lantarki.

Kodayake akwai hanyoyi daban-daban, mafi sauki ya ƙunshi madatsar ruwa, tare da ƙofofi da injinan hidimar ruwa, waɗanda ke kusa da bakin ƙofa  (bakin, a cikin teku, na wani kogi mai fadi da zurfi, da musaya da wannan ruwan gishirin da ruwan dadi, saboda igiyar ruwa. Ana kafa bakin bakin bakin ne ta hanyar hannu daya mai fadi a siffar fadada mazurai), inda raƙuman ruwa suke da mahimman tsayi.

Don nazarin aikin tsarin ana iya gani a cikin hotuna biyu masu zuwa.

Tsarin ruwa tare da dam

Aikin yana da sauqi qwarai kuma ya qunshi:

  • Lokacin da igiyar ruwa ta tashi ana cewa babban ruwa (mafi girman jihar ko matsakaicin tsayin da ya kai ga ruwa), a wannan lokacin an bude kofofin kuma ruwan ya fara turbine wannan yana samun damar shiga bakin kogin.
  • Lokacin da babban ruwa ya wuce kuma an biya kuɗin ruwa sosai, ƙofofin suna rufe don hana ruwa dawowa teku.
  • A ƙarshe, lokacin da karancin ruwa (mafi ƙasƙanci jihar ko mafi ƙarancin tsawo da raƙumi ya kai), ana fitar da ruwa ta turbin.

Duk hanyar shigar da ruwa zuwa cikin mashigar ruwa da ma fita, turbin din suna tuka janareto wadanda suke samar da makamashin lantarki.

Saboda haka turbin da aka yi amfani dasu dole ne ya zama mai juyawa don haka suyi aiki daidai lokacinda ruwa ya shiga bakin kogi da kuma lokacin fita.

Rarraba igiyar ruwa a duniya

Kamar yadda nayi tsokaci a baya raƙuman ruwa suna ta ƙaruwa ta wurin daidaitawar tekun a cikin wasu keɓaɓɓun yankuna, inda zai yiwu a yi amfani da igiyar ruwa a matsayin tushen makamashi, wanda a ƙarshe abin da yake shafan mu.

Shahararrun wurare don yin wannan sune:

  • A cikin Turai, a bakin La Ranee a Faransa, a Kislaya Guba a Rasha, a cikin mashigin Severn a Kingdomasar Ingila. Duk waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon suna da tudu mai ƙarfi sosai, tare da hauhawar yau da kullun na mita 11 zuwa 16.
  • Idan muka je Kudancin Amurka za mu ga cewa akwai ambaliyar ruwa sama da mita 4 tare da gaɓar tekun Chile da yankin kudu na Argentina. Ruwan teku ya kai mita 14 a Puerto Gallegos (Argentina). Hakanan akwai wurare masu dacewa kusa da Belern da Sao Luiz, Brazil.
  • A Arewacin Amurka, a cikin Baja California, a Meziko, tare da igiyar ruwa har zuwa mita 10, an ambaci shi a matsayin yanki mai yuwuwa don amfani da makamashin igiyar ruwa. Kari akan haka, a Kanada, a cikin Bay of Fundy, akwai igiyar ruwa sama da mita 11 kuma.
  • A cikin Asiya, an yi rikodin ruwa mai yawa a cikin Tekun Larabawa, Bay na Bengal, Kogin Kudancin China, tare da tekun Koriya da kuma Tekun Okhotsk.
  • Koyaya a cikin Rangoon, Burma, raƙuman ruwa sun kai tsayin mita 5,8. A Amoy (Szeming, China), tayin mita 4,72 ya auku. Tsayin ruwan tekun a Jinsen, Koriya, ya wuce mita 8,77 kuma a Bombay, Indiya, tayin ya kai mita 3,65.
  • A Ostiraliya, zangon ruwa yana mita 5,18 a Port Hedland da mita 5,12 a Port Darwin.
  • A ƙarshe, a Afirka babu wurare masu kyau, wataƙila za a iya gina ƙananan ƙarfin wutar lantarki kudu da Dakar, a Madagascar da cikin Tsibirin Comoro.

A duniya, akwai kusan rukunoni 100 masu dacewa don aikin gini babba, kodayake akwai wasu da yawa inda za'a iya gina ƙananan ayyuka.

Za a iya amfani da su, don samar da wutar lantarki, igiyar ruwa da ke ƙasa da mita 3, kodayake ribarta za ta yi ƙasa sosai.

Duk da haka, girka tashar wutar lantarki (ya zama mai tasiri) zai yiwu ne kawai a wurare tare da bambancin aƙalla mita 5 tsakanin tsawa da ƙanƙara.

Akwai 'yan maki a duniya inda wannan lamarin ya faru. Waɗannan su ne manyan su:

babban ruwa

A cikin duka, ana iya shigar dashi don samar da wutar lantarki, a cikin manyan shafuka na duniya game da 13.000 MW, adadi daidai da 1% na karfin wutar lantarki a duniya.

Arfin ruwa a Spain

A Spain ana gudanar da nazarin wannan makamashi musamman ta hanyar Cibiyar Hydraulics na Jami'ar Cantabria, wanda ke da babban tankin gwaji don bincike da gwajin abin da aka sani da Kogin Cantabrian da Tekun Tekun (injiniyan ruwa).

Tankin da aka ambata ɗazu yana da kusan mita 44 faɗi kuma tsawonsa ya kai mita 30, don haka yana iya yin kwatankwacin raƙuman ruwa har zuwa mita 20 da kuma iska mai tsawon kilomita 150 / h.

A gefe guda, ba a bar mu a baya ba, tun a shekarar 2011 da shuka ta farko da ke Motrico (Guipúzcoa).

Kayan aiki

Controlungiyar sarrafawa tana da Turbin 16 masu iya samar da 600.000 kWh a shekara, wato abin da mutane 600 suka cinye a matsakaici.

Bugu da kari, godiya ga wannan tsakiya daruruwan tan CO2 ba za su shiga sararin samaniya kowace shekara ba, an kiyasta cewa yana da irin wannan tasirin tsarkakewa wanda zai iya haifar da a gandun daji na kusan kadada 80.

Wannan aikin yana da jarin kusan Euro miliyan 6,7, wanda kusan 2,3 na shuka ne kuma saura don aiki a tashar.

Rikicin, wanda kowanne ke samar da kimanin 18,5 KWh, sun kasu kashi hudu na rukuni kuma suna cikin ɗakin inji, a saman jetty.

Bugu da kari, yankin da yake ba su mafaka yana cikin daya daga cikin bangarorin masu lankwasa na dutsen mai matsakaicin tsayi na ruwa mai tsawon mita 7 da tsawon mita 100.

Fa'idodi da rashin amfani da karfin ruwa

Idalarfin ruwa yana da yawa abubuwan amfani kuma wasu daga cikinsu sune:

  • Abun kuzari ne mara karewa kuma sabuntawa.
  • Wannan rarraba kan manyan yankuna na duniya
  • Yana da kyau na yau da kullunba tare da la'akari da lokacin shekara ba.

Koyaya, wannan nau'in makamashi yana gabatar da jerin tsanani drawbacks:

  • Da babba girma da farashi sakamakon kayan aikinta.
  • Bukatar don shafukan suna da yanayin kasa  hakan yana bada damar gina madatsar ruwa cikin sauki da rahusa.
  • La samarwa lokaci-lokaci, kodayake tabbas, na makamashi.
  • Mai yiwuwa cutarwa effects akan muhalli kamar sauka, rage rairayin bakin teku na estuarine, wanda yawancin tsuntsaye da kwayoyin halittun ruwa suke dogaro dashi, rage wuraren kiwo domin nau'in halittun ruwa da kuma tara gurbatattun wuraren da ke gurɓacewa a ɗakunan da koguna ke bayarwa.
  • Untata damar shiga tashar jiragen ruwa dake can nesa.

Rashin dacewar wannan nau'in makamashi ya sanya amfani da shi ya zama mai rikici, saboda haka aiwatar da shi mai yiwuwa ba mai sauƙi ba ne sai a cikin takamaiman lamura, inda aka gano cewa tasirinsa ba shi da yawa idan aka kwatanta da amfaninsa.


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  1.   clemente tawaye m

    Shekaru da yawa da suka gabata na gudanar da ihu "Eureka!" (Archimedes) lokacin da tare da gwaje-gwajen gidana na cimma sauƙin tsarin EOTRAC, wanda kawai ke amfani da ƙarfin ƙarfin iska, babban girma na wannan ƙarfin mara iyaka, wanda aka iyakance ga juriya da kayan. Bayan haka na sami sauƙin inji mai sauƙin GEM wanda ke ba da damar amfani da ƙarfi mara iyaka na kwararar da ke aiki da sanduna na sama na ɗaruruwan ko dubban murabba'in mita kuma irin wannan aikin yana cika ƙwanƙwasa, da sauransu - da kuma mafi ƙarfi - Na yi ihu "Eureka!, Eureka!", Don wannan ƙaramar ƙwayar yashi don samar da makamashi mai tsafta, abin takaici masu ƙarfin Duniyar nan sun yi shiru ko sun ɗauke ni a matsayin "goro". DUBI sabbin abubuwan kirkire-kirkire a wayar salula
    Ni dan ritaya ne mai sauki da aka haifa a 1938, BABU WANDA YA BAMU KWALLI, Ina bukatan gaba daya don gani, fahimta da kuma muhawara kan yadda karfin yanayi kanta zai iya samar da makamashi mai tsafta don rage GHG da hana dumamar yanayi (wutar duniya) lalata da ƙari yiwuwar rayuwar dan adam a doron kasa.