What is the hydrosphere?

world water

We must know that water is a very precious and necessary resource in our lives. Scientists and everyone knows it. We need water to survive. This is because we not only use it at home to drink water, shower and cook, but it is essential for agriculture, livestock and industry. Having quality water is important for society and the environment. Therefore, all the water on our planet is called hydrosphere. This hydrosphere collects water in all states: solid, liquid, and vapor.

In this article we are going to tell you everything you need to know about the hydrosphere, its characteristics and its importance.

What is the hydrosphere


The hydrosphere is the part of the biosphere that contains the water on our planet. It includes all states of water, as well as surface and groundwater. The ice that accumulates in the polar caps, mountains and all the water that circulates in the atmosphere and in rivers, lakes and oceans is also part of the hydrosphere.

The hydrosphere has important characteristics, which we can summarize in:

  • It exists in constant change of physicochemical properties. For example, many rocks dissolve with rainwater, creating amazing formations like stalactites and stalagmites.
  • Constantly interacting with the earth's crust and changing its structure. This barking is not always fixed, but rather changes over time.
  • It is an essential component of most ecosystems around the world. in terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
  • Water, as we know it today, is an essential element for life.
  • Only a fraction of all the water available in the world is suitable for consumption by humans and other species. However, that small part supports everyone.

Origin of the hydrosphere

hydrosphere cycle

During the formation of terrestrial matter, water was in a liquid and gaseous state. The water on our planet, at the beginning of all things, was just steam. This is due to the high temperatures that prevail on our planet, too hot. That burning ball of fire was the Earth at the beginning, which means that water can only be in the vapor state.

Later, when our planet began to cool down, it was able to transform into a liquid state, creating the world's oceans. It also froze, forming glaciers and ice caps. Some of this water remains in the atmosphere as water vapor, forming clouds.

Thus the first water deposits were formed. However, we know that water has not remained the same throughout Earth's history. On the one hand, in constant circulation and transformation, so to speak, in the water cycle. As the climate has changed differently over the years, the proportion of ice, liquid water, and vapor has also changed. This has led to changes in the character of the terrain over the years.

The surface area occupied by water also varies due to terrestrial dynamics. In addition to the changes physicochemical and geological changes that water can undergo, biology also brings dramatic changes to the hydrosphere. Contributions of organic matter and changes in its physical properties also cause changes in the water. Human actions have the greatest impact on the water cycle, as global warming increases temperatures, causing changes in the water cycle, purification, pollution, and physical state.

It has been changing and changing over time since the water condensed as the planet cooled.

Composition by parts

Let's analyze the composition of the hydrosphere step by step:

  • solid water. This part of the Earth's water is that of the poles, snow and alpine glaciers. The surface of ice floes is called "ice floes." The entire set of solid water is called the cryosphere.
  • Liquid water. These waters form lakes, ponds, rivers, oceans, oceans, canal waters, runoff, and groundwater. In oceans and oceans, we find oceans. Organisms also have a small percentage of water in their bodies.
  • Soda. It is water in the vapor state found in the atmosphere. It has a certain composition and volume depending on where we are and the time of year.

Distribution and contamination of water on the planet


To give you an idea, the hydrosphere is made up of 1.400 million cubic kilometers of water. The distribution of the water is as follows:

  • 97% in the ocean.
  • 2,5% in the form of fresh water.
  • The remaining 0,5% goes to other locations.

One of the main problems we face today is the man-made pollution of water. With our economic activity we are degrading and lowering the levels of water in good condition. How to put it, there are hardly any pristine waters in the world. We pollute and degrade the water in which we live.

Fortunately, we have the ability to regenerate the waters and reduce pollution. We can also desalinate seawater and seawater to make it drinkable. The problem with all this is that, on the other hand, it leads to huge energy consumption and more pollution.

Major water contaminants include bacteria, viruses, parasites, fertilizers, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, nitrates, phosphates, plastics, feces, and even radioactive materials. These elements do not always color the water, making water pollution invisible on many occasions. For this reason, small samples and chemical analyzes of aquatic organisms are often used to determine the status of water quality.

Natural factors, such as mercury leaching from the earth's crust, can contaminate oceans, rivers, lakes, canals, and reservoirs. However, it usually happens that the deterioration of the water comes from human activity and its consequences, which we detail below:

  • Global warming: The increase in the Earth's temperature warms the water due to carbon dioxide emissions, which causes its oxygen content to decrease.
  • Deforestation: deforestation depletes water resources and produces organic waste that is a breeding ground for polluting bacteria.
  • Industrial, agricultural and livestock activities: the discharge of chemical products from these sectors is one of the main causes of the eutrophication of waters.
  • Garbage and sewage discharge: the United Nations says that more than 80 percent of the world's wastewater that flows into the oceans and rivers is not treated.
  • Maritime traffic: Most of the plastic that pollutes the oceans comes from fishing boats, oil tankers and cargo.
  • fuel leaks: The transport and storage of oil and its derivatives can give rise to spills that can reach water sources.

I hope that with this information you can learn more about the hydrosphere and its characteristics.

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