Agriculture has increased the use of chemical fertilizers over the years in order to meet the strong demand for food by the population. The problem with these chemical fertilizers is the consequent deterioration of the soil that it causes. In order to alleviate these problems, the biofertilizers. These biofertilizers try to reduce the environmental impact resulting from agriculture, avoiding soil deterioration and improving its quality.
In this article we are going to tell you how biofertilizers are used against soil deterioration and what advantages they have over traditional ones.
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Biofertilizers against soil deterioration
Soil degradation is a serious and growing problem caused by the reuse, poor management and irrational exploitation of natural resources. It is estimated that more than 70% of the country's soil is physically, chemically or biologically degraded Due to intensive agriculture, the inadequate use of agricultural inputs, the removal of crop residues and the absence of organic fertilizers, its soil deteriorates day by day.
The main problems in the degradation of this natural resource are related to erosion, salinization and reduction of organic stocks, as well as compaction caused by overcropping of agricultural machinery. This necessarily implies a problem of physical degradation. Agricultural production systems have important impacts on the environment, activities and biodiversity of soil organisms. Disturbance and the use of agricultural inputs have greatly reduced the number and number of biological species that inhabit there.
After land use changes in terrestrial ecosystems, the number of plant species is drastically reduced and the quantity and quality of their resources varies with different root systems. This results in lower soil organic matter content, which in turn limits soil biodiversity and food availability.
Based on the above, there is a need to develop technologies that can increase soil organic reserves, conserve soil moisture, improve fertilizer use efficiency, and reduce soil and water pollution. Numerous studies have been conducted on the use of biofertilizers as an option to improve soil conditions and increase yields. It has been concluded that the application of organic fertilizer is very positive for improve soil conditions given the amount of microorganisms they possess.
Microorganisms have a variety of mechanisms that promote plant growth through rhizosphere symbiosis, the most important are: increased use of nutrients and water, introduction of nitrogen into the plant-soil system by biofixation by bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, etc.
These biofertilizers are gaining ground over common fertilizers since the environmental impacts are greatly reduced. Thanks to the use of microorganisms capable of improving soil conditions and its quality, it is possible to obtain improvements in crop yields without the need to damage the soil.
Advantages of biofertilizers
The main advantages offered by biofertilizers are:
- Reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. As an alternative to chemical fertilizers, biofertilizers have a positive impact on the environment by reducing the use of ammonia in the production of chemical fertilizers, reducing global energy consumption.
- Crop development and soil maintenance. The use of this microorganism favors the fertility of the land and crops, prevents erosion and favors the correct structure of the soil.
- Improve the nutritional capacity of plants. The use of this type of organic fertilizer can increase the absorption of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, zinc or phosphorus.
- They allow the use of organic waste.
- Yield increases by 30%. Improved soil maintenance helps plants grow better during dry spells.
Many farmers are unaware of the regenerative properties of biofertilizers compared to chemicals, creating false myths and denying their use. Traditional fertilizers add chemicals to the environment, such as heavy metals that are found in their own composition. On the other hand, the rational use of biofertilizers does not have a negative impact on the environment because its composition does not contain harmful elements.
In addition, the use of biofertilizers favors the antiparasitic action and increases or protects plants from pests. On the other hand, chemical fertilizers contribute to desertification and can cause almost permanent loss of soil. In addition, the use of biofertilizers helps in the regeneration of soils and crops, where organic matter and microorganisms can fix nutrients and improve soil structure.
I hope that with this information you can learn more about the use of biofertilizers against soil deterioration.